viernes, 31 de agosto de 2007

El burlador burlado

“Dijo la Zorra al Busto,
después de olerlo:
Como éste hay muchos,
que aunque parecen hombres,
sólo son bustos”

Félix María de Samaniego. Fábulas en verso castellano

Es en El burlador de Sevilla, de Tirso de Molina, donde se dramatiza, por vez primera, el mito de Don Juan. Un Don Juan que goza burlando a hombres y mujeres y destruyendo vida y honras. Al final, la justicia divina, encarnada en la estatua de Don Gonzalo, le alcanzará y le precipitará a los infiernos para escarmiento de aquellos que se atrevan a desafiar al Todopoderoso.
Toda la comedia, por otra parte, está presidida por el dinamismo, por un in crescendo en las acciones del burlador, sin que falten el lirismo y las acertadas imágenes poéticas.
El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra es un claro caso de un rebelde contra las normas sociales admitidas de la época (aunque no lo exculpa). Don Juan atenta mediante industrias reprobables contra la honra de varias doncellas. Siente placer en afrentar (no es un seductor movido por exacerbado erotismo) a las mujeres. En el teatro del siglo XVII, tal y como muestran numerosísimas obras, estas deshonras llegaban a repararse por medios y recursos varios, matrimonio incluido. Don Juan Tenorio queda acuñado como modelo para posteriores versiones más divulgadas: desde la de Molière a la de Zorrilla, pasando por Da Ponte y Mozart. Este Don Juan es un odioso triunfador de la deshonra, pero que además se complace en recrearse en el humor macabro. Así, cuando el fantasma de Don Gonzalo llega a la cena a la que le invitó Don Juan, el gracioso Catalinón supera sus miedos para entregarse de lleno a las bromas y el sarcasmo.

Don Juan vive en un mundo donde nada es realmente cierto, excepto la muerte. Vivió del engaño y en el engaño, del que sólo salió al ver el rostro de la muerte. La figura de Don Juan ha perdurado hasta nuestros días. Y la temática ha sido durante siglos un filón para escritores de distintas lenguas y culturas. Algo oculto hay en Don Juan, que todavía hoy, consigue seducirnos.

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